In the s reform-minded citizens conducted a campaign to curb El Paso's most visible forms of vice and lawlessness, and in the city finally enacted ordinances closing houses of gambling and prostitution.
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Texas Almanac — Texas Almanac Published by the Texas State Historical Association. At length Fort Bliss, which had been shut down, was reestablished, and six months of bloodshed was brought to a halt. At first the city fathers exploited the town's evil reputation by permitting vice for a price, but in time the more farsighted began to insist that El Paso's future might be in jeopardy if vice and crime were not brought under a measure of control.
In the region had its own civil war, the Salt War of San Elizarioa bloody racial conflict that had little to do with salt, but that set Texan against Mexican, strong man against strong man, faction against faction, and the United States against Mexico.
Postwar development brought the of residents up toin Fueled by rapid military and commercial expansion, El Paso's population more than doubled during the next ten years, reachingin Slower but steady growth continued throughout the s, with the population reachingin Despite a period of sluggishness from toEl Paso's population grew by 32 percent during the s, toin The population has always been predominantly Hispanic. Northernmost was Frontera, established by T. In addition, the three Mexican towns of Ysleta, Socorro, Paso San Elizario were declared to be in the United States; thus by the bicultural, island foundations of the future El Paso, Texas, were clearly established.
This act, called La Toma, or "the claiming," brought Spanish escort to the Pass of the North and laid the foundations of more than two centuries of Spanish rule over a vast area.
The city grew from 15, in to 39, in and 77, in The exodus of refugees fleeing the disruption of the Mexican Revolution contributed heavily to the city's population growth during this period. After reachingin the census the population declined to 96, by the census.
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A military post called Fort Bliss was established inand the Butterfield Overland Mail arrived in Although Confederate forces occupied Fort Bliss inthe tide began to turn in favor of the Union cause the following year, and in August the Stars and Stripes was raised once again over Fort Bliss. The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style15th edition, is the preferred citation for this entry. In the population wasand in it wasLeon C. Timmons, ed.
As they approached the Rio Grande from the south, Spaniards in the sixteenth century viewed two mountain ranges rising out of the desert with a deep chasm between. After El Paso began to shed its frontier image and develop as a modern municipality and ificant industrial, commercial, and transportation center. In the presidio of San Elizario was founded to help in the defense of the El Paso settlements against the Apaches.
For more than years Fort Bliss has played a ificant role in local, national, and international affairs, and the relationship between the city and the post has always been close. Most authorities agree that the arrival of the railro in and was the single most ificant event in El Paso history, as it transformed a sleepy, dusty little adobe village of several hundred inhabitants into a flourishing frontier community that became the county seat in and reached a population of more than 10, by As El Paso became a western boomtown, it also became "Six Shooter Capital" and "Sin City," where scores of saloons, dance halls, gambling establishments, and houses of prostitution lined the main streets.
A large dam and a series of acequias irrigation ditches made possible a flourishing agriculture.
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By this time a of Americans were engaged in the Chihuahua trade, two of whom— James W. Magoffin and Hugh Stephenson —became El Paso pioneers at a later date. The military establishment was responsible for much of El Paso's growth during the s and s, when El Paso absorbed the town of Isleta and greatly increased its municipal area.
By lateaided by the gold rush to California, five settlements had been founded along the left bank of the Rio Grande.
The El Paso area was inhabited for centuries by various Indian groups before the Spaniards came. El Paso is at the far western tip of Texas, where New Mexico and the Mexican state of Chihuahua meet in a harsh desert environment around the slopes of Mount Franklin on the Rio Grande, which has often been compared to the Nile.
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In the s a population of twenty-three Anglos and Hispanics was reported. The completion of Elephant Butte Dam in in New Mexico ensured a steady water supply for agricultural development and helped cotton to become the predominant local crop.
Textiles, tourism, the manufacture of cement and building materials, the refining of metals and petroleum, and food processing were El Paso's major industries inwith wholesale and retail tradespeople ing for Public education in El Paso began with the establishment of an elementary school in and a high school in El Paso has had several junior colleges, beginning with the College of the City of El Paso, which held classes for two years starting in and was followed by El Paso Junior College from to and the current El Paso Community College, established in The El Paso Symphony Orchestra, one of the oldest in the state, traces its roots back to El Paso's two major newspapers, the Times and the Herald Postdate from the early s, and the town has operated a public transportation system since John J.
The rapid growth that characterized El Paso during the first quarter of the twentieth century slowed somewhat during the s. Bad blood, personality conflicts, and intense personal rivalries characterized the affair, and mob violence, rape, robbery, and murder went unpunished with the breakdown of law enforcement.
The large of vineyards produced wine and brandy said to have ranked with the best in the realm. The local Southern sympathizers eventually received presidential pardons, but some, such as Simeon Hart, battled for years before they recovered their properties.
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El Paso is a colorful city with a distinctive blend of ethnic, border-town, military, Texan, and Southwestern elements. In the population was As of other contributors to El Paso's rich ethnic mix included over 13, Blacks, 3, Asians, and 1, Indians. Related Book s :. In military personnel made up one-fourth of the city's population and ed for one out of every five dollars flowing through El Paso's economy.
Since the sixteenth century the pass has been a continental crossro; a north-south route along a historic camino real prevailed during the Spanish and Mexican periods, but traffic shifted to an east-west axis in the years followingwhen the Rio Grande became an international boundary. The United States Senate fixed a boundary between Texas and New Mexico at the thirty-second parallel, thus largely ignoring history and topography.
A of important developments during the s shaped the character of the area north of the river. In the unpredictable river flooded much of the lower Rio Grande valley and formed a new channel that ran south of the towns of Ysleta, Socorro, and San Elizario, thus placing them on an island some twenty miles in length and two to four miles in width. Agriculture, ranching, and commerce continued to flourish, but the Rio Grande frequently overflowed its banks, causing great damage to fields, crops, and adobe structures.
Factors making this rapid development possible included El Paso's geographic location as a gateway to Mexico; its proximity to the mining areas of Mexico, New Mexico, and Arizona; its plentiful natural resources; and an abundant supply of cheap Mexican labor.